Homeopathy: What You Need To Know
What Is Homeopathy?
Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is a medical system that was developed in Germany more than 200 years ago. It’s based on two unconventional theories:
- “Like cures like”—the notion that a disease can be cured by a substance that produces similar symptoms in healthy people.
- “Law of minimum dose”—the notion that the lower the dose of the medication, the greater its effectiveness. Many homeopathic products are so diluted that no molecules of the original substance remain.
Homeopathic products come from plants (such as red onion, arnica [mountain herb], poison ivy, belladonna [deadly nightshade], and stinging nettle), minerals (such as white arsenic), or animals (such as crushed whole bees). Homeopathic products are often made as sugar pellets to be placed under the tongue; they may also be in other forms, such as ointments, gels, drops, creams, and tablets. Treatments are “individualized” or tailored to each person—it’s common for different people with the same condition to receive different treatments. Homeopathy uses a different diagnostic system for assigning treatments to individuals and recognizes clinical patterns of signs and symptoms that are different from those of conventional medicine.
Use in the United States
According to the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, which included a comprehensive survey on the use of complementary health approaches by Americans, an estimated 5 million adults and 1 million children used homeopathy in the previous year. The 2012 survey also reported that although about 1.8 percent of children used homeopathy, only 0.2 percent of children went to a homeopathic practitioner. A 2016 analysis of data from this survey suggests that most adults who use homeopathic products self-prescribe them for colds and musculoskeletal pain.
In 2016, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) announced it will hold efficacy and safety claims for over-the-counter homeopathic drugs to the same standard as those for other products making similar claims. It further stated that companies must have the competent and reliable scientific evidence the FTC requires for health-related claims, including claims that a product can treat specific conditions.
In December 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a new risk-based enforcement approach to homeopathic products. The proposed approach would call for more careful scrutiny of products with the greatest potential for risk, including:
- Those with reported safety concerns.
- Those that are not taken by mouth or rubbed on skin.
- Those for vulnerable populations.
- Those that do not meet legal standards for quality, strength, or purity.
- Those intended to be used for preventing or treating serious and/or life-threatening diseases and conditions.
What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Homeopathy
A 2015 comprehensive assessment of evidence by the Australian government’s National Health and Medical Research Council concluded that there is no reliable evidence that homeopathy is effective for any health condition. However, it is important to note that studies included in the assessment of evidence were required to meet a number of rigorous criteria (e.g., having a sample size of more than 150 participants, the highest rating of methodological quality, and other measures). In total, 57 systematic reviews that contained 176 individual studies were included in this assessment. A new review of evidence by the Australian government is currently underway.
Homeopathy is a controversial topic. A number of the key concepts underlying the theory of homeopathy are not consistent with fundamental scientific concepts as we understand them. For example, homeopathic preparations can be so dilute that a substance considered to be the “active ingredient” becomes unmeasurable, which creates major challenges to the rigorous investigation of such products. However, recent research has begun to examine physical attributes of these preparations to determine if it will be possible to characterize them in the future.
No Evidence To Support Homeopathic Immunizations
Certain homeopathic products (called “nosodes” or “homeopathic immunizations”) have been promoted by some as substitutes for conventional immunizations, but the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says there’s no credible scientific evidence to support such claims. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) supports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommendations for immunizations/vaccinations. To learn more about vaccines visit www.vaccines.gov.
What the Science Says About Safety and Side Effects of Homeopathy
- While many homeopathic products are highly diluted, some products sold or labeled as homeopathic may not be; they can contain substantial amounts of active ingredients, which may cause side effects or drug interactions. Negative health effects from homeopathic products of this type have been reported.
- A 2012 systematic review of case reports and case series concluded that using certain homeopathic products (such as those containing heavy metals like mercury or iron that are not highly diluted) or replacing an effective conventional treatment with an ineffective homeopathic one can cause adverse effects, some of which may be serious.
- Liquid homeopathic products may contain alcohol. The FDA allows higher levels of alcohol in these than in conventional drugs.
- Homeopathic practitioners expect some of their patients to experience “homeopathic aggravation” (a temporary worsening of existing symptoms after taking a homeopathic prescription). Researchers have not found much evidence of this reaction in clinical studies; however, research on homeopathic aggravations is scarce. Always discuss changes in your symptoms with your health care provider.
- The FDA has warned consumers about different products labeled as homeopathic. For example, in 2017, it alerted consumers that some homeopathic teething tablets had excessive amounts of the toxic substance belladonna; in 2015, it warned consumers not to rely on over-the-counter asthma products labeled as homeopathic, because they are not evaluated by the FDA for safety and effectiveness.
Regulation of Homeopathic Products
Homeopathic products are regulated as drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and are subject to the same requirements related to approval, adulteration, and misbranding as other drug products. There are currently no homeopathic products approved by the FDA.
In 1988, the FDA issued Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) 400.400, entitled “Conditions Under Which Homeopathic Drugs May be Marketed,” which described the agency’s enforcement policy. In 2019, the FDA withdrew CPG 400.400 and issued revised draft guidance for public comment. The revised draft guidance proposes a comprehensive, risk-based enforcement approach to homeopathic products marketed without FDA approval.
Laws regulating the practice of homeopathy in the United States vary from state to state. Usually, individuals licensed to practice medicine or another health care profession can legally practice homeopathy. In some states, nonlicensed professionals may practice homeopathy.
Arizona, Connecticut, and Nevada are the only states with homeopathic licensing boards for doctors of medicine (holders of M.D. degrees) and doctors of osteopathic medicine (holders of D.O. degrees). In 15 states, a section of the naturopathic medical board examinations is on homeopathy.
More To Consider
- Don’t use homeopathy to replace proven conventional care or postpone seeing a health care provider about a medical problem.
- If you are considering using a homeopathic product, bring it with you when you visit your health care provider. The provider may be able to help you determine whether the product might pose a risk of side effects or drug interactions.
- Follow the recommended conventional immunization schedules for children and adults. Don’t use homeopathic products as a substitute for conventional immunizations.
- Women who are pregnant or nursing, or people who are thinking of using homeopathy to treat a child, should consult their (or the child’s) health care providers.
- Take charge of your health—talk with your health care providers about any complementary health approaches you use. Together, you can make shared, well-informed decisions.
For More Information
The NCCIH Clearinghouse provides information on NCCIH and complementary and integrative health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.
Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-888-644-6226
Telecommunications relay service (TRS): 7-1-1
Email: email@example.com (link sends email)
Know the Science
NCCIH and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provide tools to help you understand the basics and terminology of scientific research so you can make well-informed decisions about your health. Know the Science features a variety of materials, including interactive modules, quizzes, and videos, as well as links to informative content from Federal resources designed to help consumers make sense of health information.
A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical journals. For guidance from NCCIH on using PubMed, see How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
The FTC is the Federal agency charged with protecting the public against unfair and deceptive business practices. A key area of its work is the regulation of advertising (except for prescription drugs and medical devices).
Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-877-382-4357
NIH Clinical Research Trials and You
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has created a website, NIH Clinical Research Trials and You, to help people learn about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate. The site includes questions and answers about clinical trials, guidance on how to find clinical trials through ClinicalTrials.gov and other resources, and stories about the personal experiences of clinical trial participants. Clinical trials are necessary to find better ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases.
Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures & Results (RePORTER)
RePORTER is a database of information on federally funded scientific and medical research projects being conducted at research institutions.
To provide resources that help answer health questions, MedlinePlus (a service of the National Library of Medicine) brings together authoritative information from the National Institutes of Health as well as other Government agencies and health-related organizations.
- Abbasi J. Amid reports of infant deaths, FTC cracks down on homeopathy while FDA investigates. JAMA. 2017;317(8):793-795.
- Black LI, Clarke TC, Barnes PM, Stussman BJ, Nahin RL. Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4–17 years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2012. National health statistics reports; no 78. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015.
- Cartwright SJ. Degree of response to homeopathic potencies correlates with dipole moment size in molecular detectors: implications for understanding the fundamental nature of serially diluted and succussed solutions. Homeopathy. 2018;107(1):19-31.
- Cartwright SJ. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies. Homeopathy. 2016;105(1):55-65.
- Clarke TC, Black LI, Stussman BJ, Barnes PM, Nahin RL. Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002–2012. National health statistics reports; no 79. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015.
- Cotroneo R, Gray A, Schor H, eds. Homeopathy. In: Clugston RM, Goldblatt E, Rosenthal B, et al., eds. Clinicians’ & Educators’ Desk Reference on the Integrative Health & Medicine Professions. 3rd ed. Mercer Island, WA: Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health; 2017.
- Cucherat M, Haugh MC, Gooch M, et al. Evidence of clinical efficacy of homeopathy: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2000;56(1):27-33.
- Der Marderosian AH. Understanding homeopathy. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1996;NS36(5):317-321.
- Dossett ML, Davis RB, Kaptchuk TJ, et al. Homeopathy use by US adults: results of a national survey. American Journal of Public Health. 2016;106(4):743-745.
- Ernst E. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2002;54(6):577-582.
- Ernst E. Homeopathy: what does the “best” evidence tell us? Medical Journal of Australia. 2010;192(8):458-460.
- Ernst E. The truth about homeopathy. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2008;65(2):163-164.
- Holandino C, Oliveira AP, Homsani F, et al. Structural and thermal analyses of zinc and lactose in homeopathic triturated systems. Homeopathy. 2017;106(3):160-170.
- Jonas WB, Kaptchuk TJ, Linde K. A critical overview of homeopathy. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;138(5):393-399.
- Klein SD, Würtenberger S, Wolf U, et al. Physicochemical investigations of homeopathic preparations: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis–part 1. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2018;24(5):409-421.
- Kuehn BM. Despite health claims by manufacturers, little oversight for homeopathic products. JAMA. 2009;302(15):1631-1634.
- Loudon I. A brief history of homeopathy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2006;99(12):607-610.
- Merrell WC, Shalts E. Homeopathy. Medical Clinics of North America. 2002;86(1):47-62.
- National Health and Medical Research Council (Australian Government). NHMRC Information Paper: Evidence on the Effectiveness of Homeopathy for Treating Health Conditions. National Health and Medical Research Council website. Accessed at https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/about-us/resources/homeopathy on January 18, 2018.
- Posadzki P, Alotaibi A, Ernst E. Adverse effects of homeopathy: a systematic review of published case reports and case series. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2012;66(12):1178-1188.
- Shang A, Huwiler-Müntener K, Nartey L, et al. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet. 2005;366(9487):726-732.
- Stub T, Musial F, Kristoffersen AA, et al. Adverse effects of homeopathy, what do we know? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2016;26:146-163.
- Tedesco P, Cicchetti J. Like cures like: homeopathy. American Journal of Nursing. 2001;101(9):43-49.
- Tournier A, Klein SD, Würtenberger S, et al. Physicochemical investigations of homeopathic preparations: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis–part 2. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2019;25(9):890-901.
- Vallance AK. Can biological activity be maintained at ultra-high dilution? An overview of homeopathy, evidence, and Bayesian philosophy. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1998;4(1):49-76.
NCCIH thanks Helene M. Langevin, M.D., and David Shurtleff, Ph.D., NCCIH, for their review of the 2021 update of this publication.
This publication is not copyrighted and is in the public domain. Duplication is encouraged.
NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider(s). We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH.