Headaches: In Depth
The NCCIH Clearinghouse provides information on NCCIH and complementary and integrative health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.
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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
NINDS conducts and supports research on how the brain and nervous system function and on treatments for neurological diseases.
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A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical journals. For guidance from NCCIH on using PubMed, see How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed.
To provide resources that help answer health questions, MedlinePlus (a service of the National Library of Medicine) brings together authoritative information from the National Institutes of Health as well as other Government agencies and health-related organizations.
- Abbott RB, Hui KK, Hays RD, et al. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi for tension headaches. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007;4(1):107–113.
- Andrasik F. Biofeedback in headache: an overview of approaches and evidence. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2010;77(Suppl 3):S72-S76.
- Bendtsen L, Jensen R. Treating tension-type headache—an expert opinion. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2011;12(7):1099–1109.
- Chaibi A, Tuchin PJ, Russell MB. Manual therapies for migraine: a systematic review. Journal of Headache and Pain. 2011;12(2):127–133.
- Haynes MJ, Vincent K, Fischhoff C, et al. Assessing the risk of stroke from neck manipulation: a systematic review. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2012;66(10):940–947.
- Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1346–1353.
- Levin M. Herbal treatment of headache. Headache. 2012;52(S2):76–80.
- Nestoriuc Y, Martin A. Efficacy of biofeedback for migraine: a meta-analysis. Pain. 2007;128(1–2):111–127.
- Nestoriuc Y, Martin A, Rief W, et al. Biofeedback treatment for headache disorders: a comprehensive efficacy review. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 2008;33(3):125–140.
- Nestoriuc Y, Rief W, Martin A. Meta-analysis of biofeedback for tension-type headache: efficacy, specificity, and treatment moderators. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2008;76(3):379–396.
- Office of Dietary Supplements. Magnesium. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Office of Dietary Supplements Web site. Accessed at ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/ on March 18, 2014.
- Posadzki P, Ernst E. Systematic reviews of spinal manipulations for headaches: an attempt to clear up the confusion. Headache. 2011;51(9):1419–1425.
- Verhagen AP, Damen L, Berger MY, et al. Behavioral treatments of chronic tension-type headache in adults: are they beneficial? CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 2009;15(2):183–205.
- Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, et al. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2012;172(19):1444–1453.
- Agosti R, Duke RK, Chrubasik JE, et al. Effectiveness of Petasites hybridus preparations in the prophylaxis of migraine: a systematic review. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9–10):743–746.
- Avins AL. Needling the status quo. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2012;172(19):1454–1455.
- Biofeedback. MedlinePlus Web site. Accessed at www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002241.htm on March 24, 2014.
- Birdee GS, Wayne PM, Davis RB, et al. T’ai chi and qigong for health: patterns of use in the United States. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009;15(9):969–973.
- Dagenais S, Haldeman S. Chiropractic. Primary Care. 2002;29(2):419–437.
- Dallner G, Stocker R. Coenzyme Q10. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010:157–165.
- Ernst E. Acupuncture–a critical analysis. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2006;259(2):125–137.
- Hidaka T, Fujii K, Funahashi I, et al. Safety assessment of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Biofactors. 2008;32(1–4):199–208.
- Kemper KJ, Breuner CC. Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: headaches. Pediatrics in Review. 2010;31(2):e17-e23.
- Lao L. Safety issues in acupuncture. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996;2(1):27–31.
- Lee DK. Addressing the long-term safety aspects of butterbur therapy: a call for immediate action. Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. 2005;131(6):539–540.
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- Nahin RL, Boineau R, Khalsa PS, Stussman BJ, Weber WJ. Evidence-based evaluation of complementary health approaches for pain management in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. September 2016;91(9):1292–1306.
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Pain: Hope Through Research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Web site. Accessed at www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/detail_chronic_pain.htm on March 24, 2014.
- Pringsheim T, Davenport WJ, Mackie G, et al. Canadian Headache Society guideline for migraine prophylaxis. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2012;39(2 Suppl 2):S1-S59.
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- Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Kahn J, et al. A survey of training and practice patterns of massage therapists in two US states. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005;5:13.
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- Xu S, Wang L, Cooper E, et al. Adverse events of acupuncture: a systematic review of case reports. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;2013:581203.
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