Common Names: echinacea, purple coneflower, coneflower, American coneflower
Latin Names: Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida
- There are nine known species of echinacea, all of which are native to North America. They were used by Native Americans of the Great Plains region as traditional medicines.
- Echinacea is promoted as a dietary supplement for the common cold and other infections, based on the idea that it might stimulate the immune system to more effectively fight infection. Echinacea preparations have been promoted for topical use (application to the skin) for wounds and skin problems.
- Several species of echinacea, most commonly Echinacea purpurea or Echinacea angustifolia, may be included in dietary supplements.
How Much Do We Know?
- Many studies have been done on echinacea for the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections. Much less research has been done on the use of echinacea for other health purposes.
What Have We Learned?
- Taking echinacea might slightly reduce your chances of catching a cold. Echinacea has not been shown to shorten the length of a cold.
- There isn’t enough evidence to show whether echinacea is helpful for other health conditions.
- Recent NCCIH-sponsored research suggests that the effect of echinacea on immune cells may depend on the types and amounts of bacteria within the echinacea plants and that the composition of the soil in which the plants are grown can affect this bacterial community. However, these findings come from laboratory studies of isolated cells, not studies in people.
What Do We Know About Safety?
- For most adults, short-term oral (by mouth) use of echinacea is probably safe; the safety of long-term use is uncertain.
- Although some preliminary research has been done on the use of echinacea during pregnancy, the safety of using echinacea during pregnancy or while breastfeeding remains uncertain.
- The most common side effects of echinacea are digestive tract symptoms, such as nausea or stomach pain.
- Some people have allergic reactions to echinacea, which may be severe. Some children participating in a clinical trial of echinacea developed rashes, which may have been caused by an allergic reaction.
- Current evidence indicates that the risk of interactions between echinacea supplements and most medications is low.
Keep in Mind
- Take charge of your health—talk with your health care providers about any complementary health approaches you use. Together, you can make shared, well-informed decisions.
The NCCIH Clearinghouse provides information on NCCIH and complementary and integrative health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.
Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-888-644-6226
tty (for deaf and hard-of-hearing callers):
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (link sends e-mail)
A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical journals. For guidance from NCCIH on using PubMed, see How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed.
Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
ODS seeks to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements by evaluating scientific information, supporting research, sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know), fact sheets on a variety of specific supplement ingredients and products (such as vitamin D and multivitamin/mineral supplements), and the PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset.
Email: email@example.com (link sends e-mail)
- Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, et al. Echinacea for treating the common cold: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2010;153(12):769-777.
- David S, Cunningham R. Echinacea for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019;44:18-26.
- Echinacea. Natural Medicines website. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com on October 10, 2019. [Database subscription].
- Gurley BJ, Fifer EK, Gardner Z. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (part 2): drug interactions involving popular botanical dietary supplements and their clinical relevance. Planta Medica. 2012;78(13):1490-1514.
- Haron MH, Tyler HL, Chandra S, et al. Plant microbiome-dependent immune enhancing action of Echinacea purpurea is enhanced by soil organic matter content. Scientific Reports. 2019;9(1):136.
- Haron MH, Tyler HL, Pugh ND, et al. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical. Planta Medica. 2016;82(14):1258-1265.
- Taylor JA, Weber W, Standish L, et al. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(21):2824-2830.
This publication is not copyrighted and is in the public domain. Duplication is encouraged.
NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider(s). We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH.